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Infections

 

Bronchitis Bronchitis is an acute inflammation of the air passages within the lungs.

Chagas Chagas disease, which also is called American trypanosomiasis, is a parasitic disease that occurs in the Americas, particularly in South America. It mainly occurs in rural areas of Latin America where poverty is widespread.

Chikungunya Chikungunya disease is caused by a virus transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes. The main symptoms of chikungunya disease are fever and severe joint pain. The disease shares some clinical signs with dengue and can be misdiagnosed in areas where dengue is common. There is no cure for chikungunya disease.

Cholera Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Without treatment, death can occur within hours.

Conjunctivitis, Express A Guide for Grass Roots Audiences: This module describes conjunctivitis, known as pink eye or red eye. It explores the signs and symptoms, causes, treatments and conjunctivitis in children.

 

Coronavirus MERS Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a viral respiratory illness first reported in Saudi Arabia in 2012. It is caused by a coronavirus called “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” (MERS-CoV).

Dengue Dengue fever is a disease caused by four related viruses that are spread by a particular species of mosquito. These mosquitoes thrive in and near human habitations, where they breed in even the cleanest water.

Dysentery This module describes the disease and its risk factors, causes, transmission, symptoms, diagnosis, complications and treatment, while continually emphasizing prevention.

Ear infections, Express Ear, nose and throat (ENT) disorders rarely prove fatal, except for those resulting from neoplasms (tumors), epiglottitis (inflamation of the epiglottis), and neck trauma.

Ebola Ebola hemorrhagic fever is one of many viral hemorrhagic fevers. It is a severe, often fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates, and is one of the world's most contagious diseases. However, the infection can be controlled through recommended protective measures.

 

Flu (Influenza) Influenza, or "flu," is a contagious respiratory infection caused by several flu viruses. It may look like the common cold because it infects the same organs (nose, throat, lungs) and has similar symptoms. Influenza can cause mild to severe illness, and at times it can lead to death.

Gastroenteritis Gastroenteritis (also known as gastric flu, although unrelated to influenza) is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, involving both the stomach and the small intestine and resulting in acute diarrhea.

Handwashing A Guide for General Audiences: This module is specifically targeted to general audiences and includes information about handwashing such as importance, protocols, challenges, use of sanitizers and handwashing stations.

Hepatitis The liver, the largest organ inside of your body, enables you to fight infection, removes chemicals or toxins from the system, digests food, and stores energy. Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver, which can be caused by viruses, medications or toxic agents.

HIV/AIDS A Guide for General Audiences: This series is specifically targeted to general audiences and includes the definition of HIV & AIDS, symptoms, treatment and practicing safe sex.

 

Leptospirosis Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis, a disease that affects both humans and animals. Humans become infected through direct contact with the urine of infected animals or with a urine-contaminated environment. Leptospirosis often spreads after floods through drinking water or infection of open wounds. Without treatment, leptospirosis can lead to kidney damage, meningitis (inflammation of the membrane around the brain and spinal cord), liver failure, respiratory distress, and even death.

Listeria Listeriosis is an infection caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. Transmission is generally through eating contaminated food, in particular dairy products and ready-to-eat meat and fish products.

Malaria Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease. It is caused by a parasite (an organism that lives on another creature) that commonly infects a certain type of mosquito that feeds on humans.

Measles Measles is a highly contagious viral respiratory disease that is spread through the air by way of coughing and sneezing. Some people who get measles develop serious complications including ear infections, pneumonia and diarrhea. The WHO reports that measles kills more than 140,00 children around the world each year, but that it can be prevented through inexpensive vaccines, usually administered in two doses at a prescribed interval.

Meningitis Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes (meninges) and cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord, usually due to the spread of an infection.

 

Pneumonia Pneumonia is an infection in one or both of the lungs. Certain types of bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites can cause pneumonia. Pneumonia is of a particular concern at the age of 65 or older, and if a patient has a chronic illness or impaired immune system.

Polio Polio is a crippling and potentially deadly infectious disease. It is caused by a virus that spreads from person to person. Because polio has no cure, vaccination is the best way for people to protect themselves and to stop the spread of the disease.

Rheumatic Heart Disease Rheumatic heart disease is a condition in which permanent damage to heart valves is caused by an inflammatory disease called rheumatic fever. The disease process that damages the heart valves generally begins with a throat infection called "strep throat," a treatable illness.

Scabies Scabies is a contagious skin infestation caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The mites are spread from person to person during relatively long physical contact and can come from people who have not yet shown any symptoms. Symptoms include severe itchiness and rash anywhere on the body and often in areas such as between the fingers, wrist and waist. Secondary infections can sometimes develop because of scratching and skin breakdown.

Sexually Transmitted Infections Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are infections that can be transferred from one person to another through any type of sexual contact.

 

Sepsis Sepsis is a life-threatening illness, characterized by a whole-body inflammatory state (called a systemic inflammatory response syndrome, or SIRS) and the presence of a known or suspected infection. The body's immune system may develop this inflammatory response to microbes in the blood, urine, lungs, skin, or other tissues.

Tuberculosis Tuberculosis ("TB" which is short for tubercles bacillus) is a disease caused by germs called Mycobacterium tuberculosis that are spread from person to person through the air. TB usually affects the lungs, but it also can affect other parts of the body such as the brain, the kidneys or the spine.

Typhoid Fever Typhoid fever is a severe infection caused by a bacterium, Salmonella typhi, commonly known as "salmonella poisoning" or food poisoning.

Upper Respiratory Tract Infections The upper respiratory tract consists of the nose, nasal cavity, larynx, trachea, and some of the sinuses and air cells. Upper respiratory tract infections include the common cold, influenza, laryngitis, pharyngitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, and croup (in children).

Urinary Tract Infections and Urinary Incompetence Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common infection that usually occurs when bacteria enter the opening of the urethra and multiply in the urinary tract.

Yellow Fever Yellow fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease transmitted to humans by infected Aedes mosquitoes. Yellow fever occurs in tropical and subtropical areas of Africa and the Americas. The “yellow” in the name refers to the jaundice that affects some patients. (Jaundice causes the skin and other body tissues to turn yellow.) The illness ranges in severity from a fever to severe liver disease with bleeding. Yellow fever can result in death.

Zika Virus Infection Zika is a mosquito-borne viral infection that is generally not life-threatening, although evidence suggests it may be responsible for microcephaly (birth defects), Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and possibly other conditions. These modules provide information for grassroots audiences, health care professionals and for pregnant women. Zika has no vaccines, special treatments, or cures, so prevention is the key to addressing this illness.